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Copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric monoborylation of 1,3-dienes has been developed. We describe the production of either optically active homoallyl- or allylboronates with high regio- and enantioselectivity (88−97% ee) through monoborylation of 1,3-dienes. The reaction with 1,3-cyclohexadiene derivatives afforded the corresponding enantioenriched homoallyboronates. By simply changing the reaction conditions, a drastic change of product preference between homoallyl- and allylboronates was found in the reaction of 1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cycloheptadiene.
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Heteroarenes are important structural moieties in many chemical industry fields. A highly efficient Pd/Cu-catalyzed C−H arylation method for a range of heterocycles has been discovered. It was found that the key to the success of this transformation is a combination of a palladium catalyst and a well-defined copper cocatalyst. The efficiency and low loadings of catalyst (0.25 mol %) and cocatalyst (1 mol %) together with the mild reaction conditions demonstrate this method to be practically useful and mechanistically interesting.
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Cationic organic intermediates participate in a wide variety of useful synthetic transformations, but their high reactivity can render selectivity in competing pathways difficult to control. Here, we describe a strategy for inducing enantioselectivity in reactions of protio-iminium ions, wherein a chiral catalyst interacts with the highly reactive intermediate through a network of noncovalent interactions. This interaction leads to an attenuation of the reactivity of the iminium ion and allows high enantioselectivity in cycloadditions with electron-rich alkenes (the Povarov reaction). A detailed experimental and computational analysis of this catalyst system has revealed the precise nature of the catalyst-substrate interactions and the likely basis for enantioinduction.
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The authors have demonstrated the utility of this protocol to generate a range of aryl and alkenyl organoaluminium reagents containing various functionalities. Further, these resulting new organoaluminium reagents undergo smooth Pd-catalysed cross-coupling and acylation reactions, as well as copper-catalysed allylic substitutions, affording various interesting products for pharmaceutical and material science applications.
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Unsymmetrical diarylalkynes are accessible by a one-pot procedure from two different aryl halides and (trimethylsilyl)acetylene. The three-component coupling is initialized by a Pd/Cu-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling of an aryl halide with (trimethylsilyl)acetylene. After subsequent desilylation of the formed aryl(trimethylsilyl)acetylene with aqueous potassium hydroxide, a second Sonogashira coupling with an aryl iodide that does not require any additional Pd/Cu-catalyst gives access to an unsymmetrical diarylalkyne.
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Enzymes are a continuing source of inspiration for the design of new chemical reactions that proceed with efficiency, high selectivity and minimal waste. In many biochemical processes, different catalytic species, such as Lewis acids and bases, are involved in precisely orchestrated interactions to activate reactants simultaneously or sequentially. This type of ‘cooperative catalysis’, in which two or more catalytic cycles operate concurrently to achieve one overall transformation, has great potential in enhancing known reactivity and driving the development of new chemical reactions with high value. In this disclosure, a cooperative N-heterocyclic carbene/Lewis acid catalytic system promotes the addition of homoenolate equivalents to hydrazones, generating highly substituted γ-lactams in moderate to good yields and with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity.
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Abstract - For the first time, we have modified phenylalanine peptides by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction which may be useful in developing combinatorial libraries of peptidomimetics.
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the corresponding fluorinated cyclic ethers in moderate to good yields. These intriguing addition reaction proved to proceed via a radical reaction mechanism.
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Bis-Terminal Hydroxy Polyethers as All-Purpose, Multifunctional Organic Promoters: A Mechanistic Investigation and Applications
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Achiral polyether derivatives have been shown to dramatically accelerate SN2 reactions by the simultaneous activation of both the nucleophile (KF) and electrophile (sulfonate; see picture). By using chiral variants as catalysts, the desilylative kinetic resolution of the silyl ethers of racemic secondary alcohols has been achieved. Density functional calculations provide detailed insight into the modes of action of this type of organic promoter.
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2010, 49, 1-5
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