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Current research areas

Single-Ion Spectroscopy

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why did my auto paint crack Cooling ions in a Penning trap is complicated by the form of the radial motion which can be described as an epicyclic superposition of two orbital motions (modes). Both of the radial modes are associated with negative potential energy (compared with an ion at trap centre), and one of them is associated with a negative total energy. This means that energy must be added to this mode in order to reduce the amplitude of motion.

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Ion Coulomb Crystals

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how to crack your knuckles all the time When ions in a trap are  cooled to sufficiently low temperatures ion Coulomb crystals (ICCs) are formed. This means that they no longer collide with one another but take up lattice positions forming rigid structures. The force on each of the ions due to the trapping potential is balanced by the Coulomb repulsion due to each of the other ions in the crystal.

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Optimal Control

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